9th (1971): “This Year, Who Knows?” Show Notes

Table of Contents: Description, Corrections/Clarifications, Housekeeping, General, Main Slate, Ephemera, Recurring Directors, Recurring Countries, One-Time Directors, Debuts/Final Features, Festivals/Oscar Nominees, Shorts/Panels, Discussions By Length, Specifications

poster

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Description
The ninth episode of the Catalyst and Witness podcast, devoted to exploring the films and format of the New York Film Festival, hosted by Ryan Swen and Dan Molloy. This covers the ninth edition of the festival in 1971.

0:00-28:52 – Opening
28:53-1:27:08 – Part One [The Debut to Dodes’ka-den]
1:27:09-2:10:52 – Part Two [Directed by John Ford to The Sorrow and the Pity]
2:10:53-3:19:36 – Part Three [Punishment Park to Murmur of the Heart]
3:19:37-3:25:01 – Closing

Corrections/Clarifications

  • N/A

Housekeeping

  • Hosted by Dan Molloy & Ryan Swen
  • Conceived and Edited by Ryan Swen
  • Recorded in Los Angeles on Zoom H4N and Sennheiser Microphones, Edited in Audacity
  • Podcast photograph from Yi Yi, Logo designed by Dan Molloy
  • Poster by Frank Stella
  • Recorded October 29, 2018
  • Released October 31, 2018
  • Music (in order of appearance):
    • The Debut (opening night)
    • The Sorrow and the Pity (another favorite)
    • The Last Picture Show (favorite of the first section)
    • Four Nights of a Dreamer (favorite of the second section)
    • Punishment Park (favorite of the third section)
    • Murmur of the Heart (closing night)

General

  • Selection Committee: Richard Roud (program director), Richard Corliss, Arthur Knight, Arthur L. Mayer, Andrew Sarris, Susan Sontag, Henri Langlois (retrospective consultant)
  • Location: Vivian Beaumont Theater
  • Prices: 1-4 for zones 1-4; 2 for zone 1, 3 for zone 2, 7.50 for zone 3, 10 for zone 4 for opening night
  • Films seen for the podcast:
    • Ryan
      • Seen before podcast watching period: The Last Picture Show
      • Seen for the podcast: All available; none rewatched
      • Favorite films: Punishment Park, Four Nights of a Dreamer, The Sorrow and the Pity, The Last Picture Show, Pioneers in Ingolstadt
      • Least favorite films: Born to Win
      • Rewatch Round-Up: Zorns Lemma (8th)
    • Dan
      • Seen before podcast watching period: The Last Picture Show, Directed by John Ford, Four Nights of a Dreamer, Murmur of the Heart
      • Seen for the podcast: All available except The Sorrow and the Pity; none rewatched
      • Favorite films: The Last Picture Show, Punishment Park, Pioneers in Ingolstadt, The Decameron
      • Least favorite films: Born to Win, W.R.: Mysteries of the Organism, Fata Morgana
  • Discoveries of the festival: Punishment Park, A Safe Place
  • Unavailable films: In the Summertime, Bonaparte and the Revolution

Main Slate

Opening Night: The Debut [Nachalo] (1970, Gleb Panfilov)
October 1, 8:30
Released 1971
Family Life [Życie rodzinne] (1971, Krzysztof Zanussi)
October 2, 6:30
Never released
The Last Picture Show (1971, Peter Bogdanovich)
October 2, 9:30
Released 1971
In the Summertime [Durante l’estate] (1971, Ermanno Olmi)
October 3, 7:30
Never released
The Decameron [Il Decameron] (1971, Pier Paolo Pasolini)
October 4, 7:30
Released 1971
Dodes’ka-den [Dodesukaden] (1970, Akira Kurosawa)
October 5, 7:30
Released 1974
Directed by John Ford (1971, Peter Bogdanovich)
October 6, 8:30
Never released
Fata Morgana (1971, Werner Herzog)
October 7, 7:30
Never released
Four Nights of a Dreamer [Quatre nuits d’un rêveur] (1971, Robert Bresson)
October 8, 7:30
Released 1972
Pioneers in Ingolstadt [Pioniere in Ingolstadt] (1971, Rainer Werner Fassbinder)
October 9, 6:30
Never released
Born to Win (1971, Ivan Passer)
October 9, 9:30
Released 1971
The Sorrow and the Pity [Le Chagrin et la Pitié] (1969, Marcel Ophuls)
October 10, 6:00
Released 1972
Punishment Park (1971, Peter Watkins)
October 11, 7:30
Released 1971
In the Name of the Father [Nel nome del padre] (1971, Marco Bellocchio)
October 12, 7:30
Released 1974
W.R.: Mysteries of the Organism [W.R. – Misterije organizma] (1971, Dusan Makavejev)
October 13, 7:30
Released 1971
Bonaparte and the Revolution [Bonaparte et la Révolution] (1971, Abel Gance)
October 14, 6:00
Never released
A Safe Place (1971, Henry Jaglom)
October 15, 7:30
Released 1971
“Closing Night:” Murmur of the Heart [Le souffle au cœur] (1971, Louis Malle)
October 16, 9:30
Released 1971

Ephemera

  • Panel discussions to widen the scope of the festival by going beyond the individual films to broader issues after In the Summertime, Dodes’ka-den, Fata Morgana, Four Nights of a Dreamer, Punishment Park, W.R.: Mysteries of the Organism, A Safe Place

Recurring Directors
Key: films in this iteration excluding shorts/omnibus/retrospectives, films in this iteration including, films in the festival up to this point excluding, films up to this point including, number of gala spots (when applicable), number of festivals with more than one film shown (when applicable); † indicates their last appearance, fraction in parentheses indicates number of features shown from oeuvre, features released in the eligible timeframe, features in oeuvre

  • Peter Bogdanovich: 2/2/2/2/0/1†(2/20/20)
  • Robert Bresson: 1/1/5/5
  • Ermanno Olmi: 1/1/4/4
  • Pier Paolo Pasolini: 1/1/3/5/0/1
  • Werner Herzog: 1/1/3/3
  • Abel Gance: 1/1/2/3†(2/2/40)
  • Akira Kurosawa: 1/1/2/2/1
  • Marco Bellocchio: 1/1/2/2
  • Dusan Makavejev: 1/1/2/2†(2/11/11)
  • Ivan Passer: 1/1/2/2†(2/11/11)
  • Peter Watkins: 1/1/2/2†(2/12/12)
  • Louis Malle: 1/1/1/1/1
  • Gleb Panfilov: 1/1/1/1/1
  • Rainer Werner Fassbinder: 1/1/1/1
  • Marcel Ophuls: 1/1/1/1
  • Krzysztof Zanussi: 1/1/1/1

Recurring Countries
Key: films in this iteration excluding shorts/retrospectives, films in this iteration including, films in the festival up to this point excluding, films up to this point including, number of gala spots (when applicable)

  • USA: 5/5/24/35/1
  • France: 4/4/54/65/6
  • Italy: 3/3/24/28/1
  • West Germany: 2/2/9/9
  • Japan: 1/1/11/13/1
  • Poland: 1/1/7/7
  • Yugoslavia: 1/1/5/5
  • USSR: 1/1/4/4/2

One-Time Directors

  • Henry Jaglom

Feature Debuts

  • Henry Jaglom

Final Features

  • Abel Gance

Festivals

  • NYFF World Premiere
    • The Last Picture Show
    • Born to Win
    • In the Name of the Father
    • A Safe Place
  • Cannes
    • Family Life
    • Fata Morgana (Directors’ Fortnight)
    • Murmur of the Heart
    • W.R.: Mysteries of the Organism (Directors’ Fortnight)
    • Pioneers in Ingolstadt (?)
  • Berlin
    • The Decameron (Silver Bear Extraordinary Jury Prize)
    • Four Nights of a Dreamer
  • Venice
    • Directed by John Ford
    • In the Summertime
  • Other
    • Punishment Park (Atlanta and Edinburgh)
    • The Sorrow and the Pity (Dinard, Grand Prize)
  • N/A
    • Bonaparte and the Revolution
    • The Debut
    • Dodes’ka-den

Oscar Nominees

  • The Last Picture Show: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Supporting Actor (winner and second nominee), Best Supporting Actress (winner and second nominee), Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Cinematography
  • The Sorrow and the Pity: Best Documentary
  • Dodes’ka-den: Best Foreign Film
  • Murmur of the Heart: 1972 Best Original Screenplay

Shorts/Panels

shorts

Discussions By Length (Approximate)

  • 16:49 The Last Picture Show (46:28-1:03:17)
  • 15:24 Punishment Park (2:23:36-2:39:00)
  • 11:56 Dodes’ka-den (1:15:12-1:27:08)
  • 11:48 Directed by John Ford (1:28:08-1:39:56)
  • 11:45 The Sorrow and the Pity [One Person] (2:11:50-2:23:35)
  • 10:28 The Decameron (1:04:43-1:15:11)
  • 9:51 W.R.: Mysteries of the Organism (2:46:30-2:56:21)
  • 8:59 Family Life (37:28-46:27)
  • 8:49 Four Nights of a Dreamer (1:47:52-1:56:41)
  • 8:46 Murmur of the Heart (3:10:50-3:19:36)
  • 7:54 Fata Morgana (1:39:57-1:47:51)
  • 7:37 The Debut (29:50-37:27)
  • 7:31 A Safe Place (3:03:18-3:10:49)
  • 7:28 In the Name of the Father (2:39:01-2:46:29)
  • 7:10 Born to Win (2:03:42-2:10:52)
  • 6:59 Pioneers in Ingolstadt (1:56:42-2:03:41)
  • 6:55 Bonaparte and the Revolution [Unavailable] (2:56:22-3:03:17)
  • 1:24 In the Summertime [Unavailable] (1:03:18-1:04:42)

Specifications

  • Gleb Panfilov, Nachalo, 1970, 35 mm, black-and-white, sound, 91 minutes, 2.35:1, USSR.
  • Krzysztof Zanussi, Życie rodzinne, 1971, 35 mm, color, sound, 88 minutes, 1.66:1, Poland.
  • Peter Bogdanovich, The Last Picture Show, 1971, 35 mm, black-and-white, sound, 126 minutes, 1.85:1, USA.
  • Ermanno Olmi, Durante l’estate, 1971, 35 mm, color, sound, 105 minutes, 1.37:1, Italy.
  • Pier Paolo Pasolini, Il Decameron, 1971, 35 mm, color, sound, 111 minutes, 1.85:1, Italy.
  • Akira Kurosawa, Dodesukaden, 1970, 35 mm, color, sound, 140 minutes, 1.37:1, Japan.
  • Peter Bogdanovich, Directed by John Ford, 1971, 35 mm, color, sound, 99 minutes, 1.37:1, USA.
  • Werner Herzog, Fata Morgana, 1971, 35 mm, color, sound, 79 minutes, 1.37:1, West Germany.
  • Robert Bresson, Quatre nuits d’un rêveur, 1971, 35 mm, color, sound, 87 minutes, 1.66:1, France.
  • Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Pioniere in Ingolstadt, 1971, 35 mm, color, sound, 84 minutes, 1.37:1, West Germany.
  • Ivan Passer, Born to Win, 1971, 35 mm, color, sound, 88 minutes, 1.85:1, USA.
  • Marcel Ophuls, Le Chagrin et la Pitié, 1969, 16 mm, black-and-white, sound, 251 minutes, 1.66:1, France.
  • Peter Watkins, Punishment Park, 1971, 16 mm, color, sound, 91 minutes, 1.33:1, USA.
  • Marco Bellocchio, Nel nome del padre, 1971, 35 mm, color, sound, 115 minutes, 1.85:1, Italy.
  • Dusan Makavejev, W.R. – Misterije organizma, 1971, 16 mm and 35 mm, color and black-and-white, sound, 84 minutes, 1.37:1, Yugoslavia.
  • Abel Gance, Bonaparte et la Révolution, 1971, 35 mm, black-and-white, sound, 275 minutes, 1.37:1, France.
  • Henry Jaglom, A Safe Place, 1971, 35 mm, color, sound, 94 minutes, 1.85:1, USA.
  • Louis Malle, Le souffle au cœur, 1971, 35 mm, color, sound, 118 minutes, 1.66:1, France.

2018 Festival Dispatch #3 Show Notes

Listen to the podcast here.
Subscribe to the podcast here.

Description
The third 2018 festival dispatch of the Catalyst and Witness podcast, devoted to exploring the films and format of the New York Film Festival, hosted by Ryan Swen and Dan Molloy. This covers the second half of the 2018 New York Film Festival, and features guests Forrest Cardamenis, Courtney Duckworth, Caden Mark Gardner, Jeva Lange, Jason Miller, and Kyle Pletcher.

0:00-58:56 – Part One
58:57-1:48:21 – Part Two

Housekeeping

  • Hosted by Dan Molloy & Ryan Swen
  • Conceived and Edited by Ryan Swen
  • Guests: Forrest Cardamenis, Courtney Duckworth, Caden Mark Gardner, Jeva Lange, Jason Miller, Kyle Pletcher
  • Recorded in Los Angeles, New York City, Schenectady, and Trenton on Zoom H4N and Sennheiser Microphones and MacBook GarageBand and Audacity, Edited in Audacity
  • Podcast photograph from Yi Yi, Logo designed by Dan Molloy
  • Recorded October 13, 2018
  • Released October 27, 2018
  • Music (in order of appearance):
    • Historias extraordinarias
    • Kaili Blues
    • Happy Hour

New York Film Festival Running Tallies

Festivals by Number of Films/Programs/New Features:

  • 4th (1966): 31/25/22
  • 2nd (1964): 30/26/28
  • 8th (1970): 28/26/27
  • 3rd (1965): 28/25/18
  • 6th (1968): 26/25/22
  • 5th (1967): 26/23/22
  • 10th (1972): 24/22/24
  • 7th (1969): 23/23/20
  • 1st (1963): 21/21/21
  • 9th (1971): 18/18/18

Total: 255/234/222

Festivals by Primary Location:

  • Philharmonic Hall: 8
  • Alice Tully Hall: 2
  • Vivian Beaumont Theater: 1

Selection Committee Members:

  • Richard Roud (first program director): 10
  • Arthur Knight: 7
  • Andrew Sarris: 7
  • Amos Vogel (original festival director): 6
  • Susan Sontag: 6
  • Henri Langlois (retrospective consultant): 4
  • Richard Corliss: 2
  • Arthur L. Mayer: 2
  • Penelope Huston: 1
  • John Russell Taylor: 1

Directors:
Key: films in the festival up to this point excluding shorts/omnibus/retrospectives, films up to this point including, number of gala spots (when applicable), number of festivals with more than one film shown (when applicable); † indicates filmmakers with no more films

  • Jean-Luc Godard: 13/17/2/5
  • Luis Buñuel: 6/6/1/2
  • Bernardo Bertolucci: 5/6/1/1
  • Robert Bresson: 5/5
  • Alain Resnais: 4/4/2
  • Satyajit Ray: 4/4/1
  • Jerzy Skolimowski: 4/4/0/2
  • Ermanno Olmi: 4/4
  • Pier Paolo Pasolini: 3/5/0/1
  • Milos Forman: 3/3/2
  • Chris Marker: 3/3/1
  • Agnès Varda: 3/3/1
  • René Allio: 3/3†
  • Marguerite Duras: 3/3
  • Werner Herzog: 3/3
  • Miklós Jancsó: 3/3
  • Joseph Losey: 3/3
  • Jean-Marie Straub & Danièle Huillet: 3/3
  • Bo Widerberg: 3/3
  • Kon Ichikawa: 2/3/0/1
  • Peter Whitehead: 2/3/0/1†
  • Abel Gance: 2/3†
  • Eric Rohmer: 2/3
  • Peter Bogdanovich: 2/2/0/1†
  • Francesco Rosi: 2/2/0/1
  • Akira Kurosawa: 2/2/1
  • François Truffaut: 2/2/1
  • Marco Bellocchio: 2/2
  • Claude Chabrol: 2/2
  • Rainer Werner Fassbinder: 2/2
  • Jean-Pierre Gorin: 2/2†
  • Kjell Grede: 2/2†
  • Alexander Kluge: 2/2
  • Masaki Kobayashi: 2/2†
  • Ken Loach: 2/2
  • Dusan Makavejev: 2/2†
  • Adolfas Mekas: 2/2†
  • Jonas Mekas: 2/2
  • Marcel Ophuls: 2/2
  • Ivan Passer: 2/2†
  • Maurice Pialat: 2/2
  • Bob Rafelson: 2/2†
  • Jacques Rivette: 2/2
  • Carlos Saura: 2/2
  • Hiroshi Teshigahara: 2/2†
  • Leopoldo Torre Nilsson: 2/2†
  • Peter Watkins: 2/2†
  • Krzysztof Zanussi: 2/2
  • Jan Nemec: 1/3/0/1†
  • Joris Ivens: 1/2/1
  • Jiri Menzel: 1/2/1†
  • Gianni Amico: 1/2
  • Jaromil Jires: 1/2†
  • Kenji Mizoguchi: 1/2†
  • Roberto Rossellini: 1/2
  • Jean Rouch: 1/2†
  • Grigori Kozintsev: 1/1/1
  • Louis Malle: 1/1/1
  • Gleb Panfilov: 1/1/1
  • Robert Altman: 1/1
  • Ingmar Bergman: 1/1
  • Walerian Borowczyk: 1/1
  • John Cassavetes: 1/1
  • Carlos Diegues: 1/1
  • Philippe Garrel: 1/1
  • James Ivory: 1/1
  • Sidney Lumet: 1/1
  • Károly Makk: 1/1
  • Jean-Pierre Melville: 1/1
  • Nagisa Oshima: 1/1
  • Sergei Paradjanov: 1/1
  • Aleksandar Petrovi: 1/1
  • Roman Polanski: 1/1
  • Glauber Rocha: 1/1
  • Michael Roemer: 1/1
  • Volker Schlöndorff: 1/1
  • Martin Scorsese: 1/1
  • Ousmane Sembène: 1/1
  • István Szabó: 1/1
  • Luchino Visconti: 1/1
  • Andrzej Wajda: 1/1
  • Orson Welles: 1/1
  • Max Ophuls: 0/2
  • Jean Renoir: 0/2
  • Erich von Stroheim: 0/2
  • Michelangelo Antonioni: 0/1
  • Vera Chytilová: 0/1
  • Cecil B. DeMille: 0/1
  • Louis Feuillade: 0/1
  • Rouben Mamoulian: 0/1
  • Albert & David Maysles: 0/1

Directors with only one appearance: 74

Countries:
Key: films in the festival up to this point excluding shorts/omnibus/retrospectives, films up to this point including, number of gala spots (when applicable)

  • France: 62/73/7
  • USA: 29/40/1
  • Italy: 25/29/2
  • UK: 15/17/1
  • Japan: 12/14/1
  • Czechoslovakia: 11/13/3
  • Sweden: 10/10
  • West Germany: 10/10
  • Poland: 8/8
  • Hungary: 7/7
  • Yugoslavia: 5/5
  • USSR: 4/4/2
  • India: 4/4/1
  • Canada: 3/4
  • Spain: 3/3/1
  • Argentina: 3/3
  • Mexico: 2/2/1
  • Belgium: 2/2
  • Brazil: 2/2
  • Denmark: 2/2
  • Greece: 2/2
  • Senegal: 1/1

Film Format:

  • 35mm: 215
  • 16mm: 37
  • 16mm and 35mm: 2
  • 35mm and 16mm: 1

Aspect Ratio:

  • 1.37:1: 89
  • 1.66:1: 59
  • 1.33:1: 39
  • 1.85:1: 37
  • 2.35:1: 25
  • 1.20:1: 4
  • 2.55:1: 1
  • 1.33:1 and 4.00:1: 1

B&W/Color:

  • Black & White: 146
  • Color: 94
  • Black & White and Color: 9
  • Color and Black & White: 6

Sound/Silent:

  • Sound: 244
  • Silent: 10
  • Silent/Sound: 1

Festivals by Total Running Time/Average Running Time per Film:

  • 3rd (1965): 2815/100:32
  • 2nd (1964): 2759/91:58
  • 5th (1967): 2575/99:02
  • 8th (1970): 2520/90:00
  • 4th (1966): 2515/81:08
  • 10th (1972): 2491/103:47
  • 6th (1968): 2450/94:14
  • 7th (1969): 2258/98:10
  • 9th (1971): 2126/118:07
  • 1st (1963): 2079/99:00

Total: 24588/96:25

Films Over Two-and-a-Quarter Hours

  • Les Vampires (3rd, 417)
  • Napoléon (5th, 333)
  • Bonaparte and the Revolution (9th, 275)
  • L’Amour fou (10th, 252)
  • The Sorrow and the Pity (9th, 251)
  • L’Argent (6th, 195)
  • Red Beard (3rd, 185)
  • Woman in the Dunes (2nd, 147)
  • Cyrano and d’Artagnan (2nd, 145)
  • Le Joli Mai (1st, 145)
  • Oh! What a Lovely War (7th, 144)
  • Dodes’ka-den (9th, 140)
  • Hamlet (2nd, 140)
  • The Nun (6th, 140)
  • The Merry Widow (7th, 137)
  • The Big City (2nd, 136)

Longest Streaks of Consecutive Director Appearances (Three or More Features)

  • Bernardo Bertolucci: 6 [La commare secca to Last Tango in Paris]
  • Robert Bresson: 5 [The Trial of Joan of Arc to Four Nights of a Dreamer]
  • Jean-Luc Godard: 5 [Alphaville to 2 or 3 Things I Know About Her]
  • Alain Resnais: 4 [Muriel, or the Time of Return to Je t’aime, je t’aime]
  • Jerzy Skolimowski: 4 [Identification Marks: None to Le Départ]
  • René Allio: 3 [The Shameless Old Lady to Pierre and Paul]
  • Luis Buñuel: 3 [The Exterminating Angel to Simon of the Desert]
  • Milos Forman: 3 [Black Peter to The Firemen’s Ball]
  • Werner Herzog: 3 [Signs of Life to Fata Morgana]
  • Ermanno Olmi: 3 [One Fine Day to In the Summertime]
  • Jean-Marie Straub & Danièle Huillet: 3 [Not Reconciled to Othon]
  • Agnès Varda: 3 [Les Créatures to Lions Love]

Notable Actors With Numerous Appearances

  • Jean-Pierre Léaud: 11
  • Anna Karina: 8
  • Pierre Clémenti: 5
  • Anne Wiazemsky: 5
  • Stéphane Audran: 4
  • Juliet Berto: 4
  • Dirk Bogarde: 4
  • Jeanne Moreau: 4
  • Jean Yanne: 4
  • Jean-Paul Belmondo: 3
  • Bulle Ogier: 3
  • Delphine Seyrig: 3
  • Jean-Louis Trintignant: 3
  • Dominique Sanda: 2
  • Gérard Depardieu: 1

Number of world premieres: 15
Number of Palme d’Or winners: 0
Number of Golden Bear winners: 2
Number of Golden Lion winners: 4
Number of Golden Leopard winners: 1

Number of documentaries (feature or short): 26
Films directed in part or whole by women: 14
Films released the same year as their festival appearance: 61
Films never released: 71

2018 Festival Dispatch #2 Show Notes

Listen to the podcast here.
Subscribe to the podcast here.

Description
The second 2018 festival dispatch of the Catalyst and Witness podcast, devoted to exploring the films and format of the New York Film Festival, hosted by Ryan Swen and Dan Molloy. This covers the first half of the 2018 New York Film Festival, and features guests Aret Frost, David Neary, and Kyle Pletcher.

0:00-52:36 – Part One
52:37-1:41:27 – Part Two

Housekeeping

  • Hosted by Dan Molloy & Ryan Swen
  • Conceived and Edited by Ryan Swen
  • Guests: Aret Frost, David Neary, Kyle Pletcher
  • Recorded in Los Angeles, New York City, and Trenton on Zoom H4N and Sennheiser Microphones and MacBook GarageBand and Audacity, Edited in Audacity
  • Podcast photograph from Yi Yi, Logo designed by Dan Molloy
  • Recorded October 6, 2018
  • Released October 9, 2018
  • Music (in order of appearance):
    • The Hole
    • The Day He Arrives
    • Trouble Every Day

October 2018 Capsules

A Star Is Born
Yes, “The Man That Got Away” might be the greatest musical number ever committed to film, but one sequence seems to capture the spirit of this extravagant, devastating masterpiece even better: “Born in a Trunk.” (Complicating this of course is the fact that “Born in a Trunk” was filmed after Cukor had finished his involvement with the film, though this only strengthens its connections to the machinations of Hollywood.) The medley of songs from numerous genres indulges in all the abstraction and expressionism possible in the American film industry, lunging through vividly contrasting set after set, with the only connective tissue being Garland’s voice and physicality. It is blatantly, gloriously unclear whether this is some part of Vicki Lester’s star-making role or a mental projection of her thinking on her past life through said role – notably, the Academy ratio of the film-within-the-film expands to CinemaScope in the span of a cut. Comparisons to Gene Kelly’s repeated intonations of “dignity, always dignity” or even “Broadway Melody” from Singin’ in the Rain are there, of course, but the lines between role, performer-in-a-role, and performer are even further blurred. And throughout, it is so clear that Vicki Lester is the real deal, that she must shine and diminish all around her. This is the film in less than 15 minutes; what makes it what is is the two and a half hours left: not one second is anything less than vital.